Date of Award
Master of Science (MS)
Dr. W. Clement Wood
The purpose of this study was to compare American and Cyprus secondary education, in regard to purposes, content, organization and presentation in an attempt to arrive at unbiased generalizations whereby the two systems might be viewed more critically. In order to obtain reliable information on the American and Cyprus secondary education the following procedures were adopted: 1. Fourteen American states were selected, two from each of the s even divisions as listed in the Research Bulletin of t he National Education Association entitled Trends in City School Organization. A letter was sent to the superintendent of public instruction in each state requesting him to recommend ten public high schools. An information blank was then mailed to the administrative officers of the recommended schools, seeking information pertinent to the purpose of the investigation. 2. Three secondary schools were selected from Cyprus from the classification in terms of type of curriculum, as cited in the Report of the Department of Education, 1951- 1952. A wide range of educational literature relative to the problem was consulted. It was ascertained that in the United States schools seek to attain the democratic ideals through, (1) social-civic, economic, vocational and individualistic-avocational activities, (2) emphasis on the functional present and (3) training in how to think. The theories subscribed to by the greatest number of schools were that, (1) education should be concerned with adjustment of students to meet changing conditions, (2) truth is pragmatic, 3) students should be trained in a general education and a specific vocational pursuit, (4) each student should be regarded as a unique individual and (5) the fundamentals should be emphasized more than the other course offerings. In regard to the curriculum it was found that in the majority of the schools, (1) it is broad and varied to suit different needs and interests, (2) it is society-centered with due regard to children€™s interests and abilities, (3) offerings and method of presentation are largely organized into separate subjects especially in the senior high schools , (4) co-curricular activities are emphasized as indispensable requisites in the wholesome integration of the child, (5) the methods of classroom instruction are largely the recitation method and the resource unit method, (6) evaluation implies not mere testing of factual information, but also growth in attitudes, skills, mental processes, interests and so forth, (7) disciplinary problems are handled through self-analysis techniques and co-operation with the parents, (8) the administration seeks large cooperation with the staff in program and policy matters, (9) the pupils have some part in the determination of curriculum content, and (10) the administration seeks some pupil co-operation in program and policy matters. The findings indicated that in Cyprus secondary education is based on the principles that, (1) preparation for present and future life is achieved through a study of values and learning as established by the great thinkers of the past, (2) the function of the school should be to discipline its students to conform to and to acquire the values and learning of the past especially those of ancient Hellas and the Greek Orthodox Church, (3) a general education in the humanities and the sciences is indispensable for man's adaptation to life, and (4) the training of the body although important for intellectual development should be secondary to the mental development and be carried out on classical lines. In line with tm foregoing principles the majority of schools in Cyprus offer a rigid curriculum mostly of the academic type with very limited vocational offerings. The method of classroom instruction is largely the lecture method, offerings are organized into separate subjects and students have to conform to a strict disciplinary code. In view of the comparative study of the American and the Cyprus secondary education the following broad generalizations were formulated: 1. There should be equality of educational opportunities for every youth. 2. Values are both subjective and objective; they are not pragmatic. 3. A school should provide opportunities for individual and social integration but neither should be overemphasized at the expense of the other. 4. A general education should be the primary aim of the school with the provision of a vocational environment. 5. Close co-operation among the administration, the staff, the pupils and the community is essential in all aspects of the educational process. 6. The curriculum content should be presented in wholes not parts. 7. The school should have a varied extra-curricular program.
Copyright 1954 Andreas Kazamias
Kazamias, Andreas M., "Educational Theories and Curriculum Aspects of American and Cyprus Secondary Schools" (1954). Master's Theses. 535.