Master's Theses



Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


I-D orientation is a personality characteristic that refers to the extent to which individuals compensate for uncertainty in their environment. Those who compensate more are termed delayed-return individuals whereas those who compensate less are termed immediate return individuals. This study examined the relationship between I-D orientation among undergraduate students and preference for and engagement in hierarchical or egalitarian behaviors while in small groups with undefined power distribution. Because immediate-return societies (such as some indigenous African tribes) are largely based on egalitarianism and equality, it is expected that immediate-return individuals would prefer more egalitarian relationships. The l-D orientation of each student was determined and their behaviors while in a three-person debate group were both self-rated and externally-rated to determine any shifting towards hierarchical or egalitarian relationships. Based on data from the external raters, a significant relationship between I-D orientation and an individual’s shifting towards egalitarianism and transitive dominance was found. These results support the notion that immediate-return individuals favor and behave in egalitarian ways, even though they themselves are not aware of these behaviors.


Kaira Hayes

Date of Award

Spring 2007

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 2007 David D. Egert


For questions contact

Off Campus FHSU Users Click Here