Master's Theses


Advanced Education Programs

Degree Name

Education Specialist (Ed.S)


Numerous investigations have been conducted to examine the effects of demographic variables on performance on the Wechsler Intelligence Scales. Research, however, has not been conducted on the effects of urban-rural residence on Wechsler scores for those under the age of 16. The present study focused on difference sin demographic variables that may be related to scores on the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and The Wechsler Intelligence Score for Children-Third Edition (WISC-III). Particular emphasis was placed on the Picture Arrangement and Comprehension subtests of the Wechsler scales because of their relationship to social intelligence. Wechsler protocols were randomly selected from school psychologist’s files and then analyzed for differences in regard to age, gender, and urban-rural residence. It was predicted that rural students would score higher than urban students on Picture Arrangement and Comprehension. Differences were also predicted to be found between males and females and two age groups on these and other subtests of the Wechsler scales. Multivariate and univariate analysis of variance found that rural subjects outscored urban subjects on the Picture Arrangement subtest, Object Assembly subtest, and Performance Scale score. While the results for the Picture Arrangement subtest were predicted the other results were not. No differences occurred between rural and urban groups on the Comprehension subtest. These results indicate differences in one area of social intelligence between urban and rural groups, but not in another. Urban children outperformed rural subjects on the Digit Span subtest which was not predicted. As predicted, females performed better on the Coding subtest while males performed better on the Block Design subtest. Males, however, did not outperform females on the Information, Arithmetic, Picture Completion, and Comprehension subtest as predicted. Elementary subjects outscored secondary subjects on the Arithmetic subtest. Finally, it was predicted that secondary subjects would outscore elementary subjects on the Comprehension and Picture Arrangement subtests. However, in the present study the reverse occurred for the Comprehension subtest.


Kenneth Olson

Date of Award

Spring 1994

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1994 Diana M. Dellere


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