Master's Theses


Social Work

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


The purpose of the researcher was to investigate loneliness in senior citizens in a very small rural town. The independent variables were age, gender, marital status, income, living situation, and the irrational beliefs of dependency, anxious over-concern, frustration reactivity, high self-expectations, problem avoidance, and helplessness. The dependent variable was scores from the UCLA Loneliness Scale (Version 3). Subjects were 129 retirees over the age of 60 living in a small rural town located in the center of the state of Kansas. A status survey factorial design with pre-grouping and post hoc grouping was employed. Eleven composite null hypotheses were tested. A total of 43 comparisons plus 34 recurring comparisons were made. Of the 43 comparisons, 12 were main effects and 31 were interactions. Of the 12 main effects, 8 were statistically significant at the .05 level. Of the 31 interactions, 9 were statistically significant at the .05 level. The results of the present study appeared to support the following generalizations: 1. Individuals with greatest irrational beliefs reported greater loneliness than those with least irrational beliefs. 2. Individuals with highest anxious over-concern reported greater loneliness than those with lowest anxious over concern. 3. Individuals with highest frustration reactivity reported greater loneliness than those with lowest frustration reactivity. 4. Individuals with highest self-expectation reported greater loneliness than individuals with lowest self-expectation. 5. An association between age and loneliness. 6. An association between gender and loneliness. 7. An association between marital status and loneliness. 8. An association between income and loneliness. 9. An association between living situation and loneliness. 10. An association between anxious over-concern and loneliness. 11. An association between frustration reactivity and loneliness, and 12. Interactions for marital status and age; income and age; age, income and irrational beliefs; living situation and dependency; gender and living situation; gender and frustration reactivity; gender, living situation, and high self-expectation; gender, living situation, and problem avoidance; and gender and irrational beliefs.


Bill Daley

Date of Award

Summer 1991

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1991 S. Jo Stumps


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