Master's Theses



Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


An exact definition of time has alluded scholars since the era of St. Augustine. Like all "big" questions, however, this has not prevented numerous studies from being undertaken and distinct categories of time from being isolated. Future time perspective (FTP) and its component dimensions (extension, coherence, directionality, density, and attitude/affectivity) are perhaps the most studied of the time categories, but this concept still lacks a widely supported and psychometrically sound assessment instrument. The Daltrey (1982) FTP instrument was specifically designed to fill this void, but it has not been sufficiently replicated. If the scale proves psychometrically sound, it has a great deal of promise in clarifying the association between FTP and depression. The purpose of the current study was to gain systematic information regarding the relationship between FTP and depression, and to determine if the results of Daltrey's work can be replicated. One hundred thirty- two subjects were recruited from undergraduate psychology classes at Fort Hays State University and then were randomly assigned to three groups. Two groups underwent a mood induction procedure, Velten's (1968) depression or elation statements, and the third group was placed in a neutral condition. Due to the short duration of the Velten MIP (10 minutes; Chartier & Ranieri, 1989) the original 80-item Daltrey instrument had to be modified. The modified version rearranged the 80 items in such a way that the highest correlated items (8 per subscale) were presented first in a stratified random manner. The results of the study indicated that the shortened version of the instrument (the first 40 items) is a valid representation of its full-length counterpart. A series of ANOVAs were conducted and found no significant differences between the three mood conditions and any of the FTP dimensions. Subsequent MANOVAs using various variables as covariants also failed to reach significance. Correlational analyses were also conducted and significant results were found between gender, grade point average (GPA), and the various FTP dimensions. The results of the current study provided limited support for the historic relationship between the concept of FTP and depression. The results also provided some needed replication for Daltrey's (1982) FTP instrument, and indicated that her conclusions about FTP being composed of one unitary concept (rather than five distinct dimensions) may be correct.


Thomas T. Jackson

Date of Award

Spring 1991

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1991 Kenneth Loos


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