Master's Theses



Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


The present study examined the effects of athletes' interpretation of perceived precompetitive arousal on patterns of anticipatory anxiety, self -confidence, and the quality of performance. Recent research and theory suggests that a positive interpretation of arousal is associated with: (1) an inverted-V pattern of anticipatory anxiety (anxiety initially increases but peaks near the middle of the preparatory period and decreases thereafter) (2) high self -confidence, and (3) successful athletic performance. Also, research has shown that successful athletes can be distinguished from less successful athletes on the basis of their patterns of anticipatory anxiety in closed-skill sports but not in open-skill sports. Thirty- one male and fourteen female Kata performers from martial clubs in Hays, KS, and Wichita, KS were selected as subjects. Kata is a closed-skill sport (environmental surroundings remain constant) where the athlete performs a predetermined routine which is subjectively judged. The Performance Attitude Questionnaire was utilized to classify the athletes as facilitators (those interpreting their arousal positively) or debilitators (those interpreting their arousal negatively). The Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (which measures somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety, and self-confidence) was administered 1 week, 1 day, 1 1/2 hours, 45 min., and 15 min. before the competition. The facilitators were significantly more self-confident than the debilitators 45 minutes, F (1, 95) = 4.01, p = .05, and 15 minutes, F (1, 95) = 4.41, p = .04, before the competition. The Hays athletes participated in Kata only, whereas the Wichita athletes participated in both Kata and sparring (an open-skill s port where the athlete must react to continually changing environmental surroundings). As such, hypotheses concerning anticipatory anxiety patterns were examined separately by location. The interpretation of arousal by time of measurement interaction in Hays was significant, F (4, 36) = 4.1, p <. 01, which indicates that the anticipatory somatic anxiety patterns of facilitators and debilitators were significantly different. Anticipatory somatic anxiety patterns did not distinguish between the Wichita facilitators and debilitators or the more and less successful athletes in both locations. The coaches did not rate the facilitators as more successful than the debilitators.


Robert Markley

Date of Award

Fall 1987

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1987 Brad A. Johnson


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