Master's Theses



Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


This study investigated the effects of visual feedback and token reinforcement on voice volume changes in mentally retarded adults with voice intensity disorders. A voice volume feedback apparatus was used in training six subjects who spoke too loudly and six subjects who spoke too softly. In addition to visual feedback, three subjects from the “Loud” group and three from the “Soft” group received reinforcement, in the form of tokens (plastic chips), for speaking at the appropriate intensity. There were a significant improvement in control of voice volume in the “Loud” and “Soft” groups pre- and post (five, 12 and 19 days post-training) baseline decibel readings, cumulative totals of time for the green light on, and team member ratings of each participant. There were no significant differences between the token reinforcement subgroup and the non-token reinforcement subgroup for decibel ratings on time for the green light on. Visual feedback alone was sufficient to motivate these subjects to speak at an appropriate volume level. The decreases and increases in speech volume generalized to the non-training setting.


Cathy Hall

Date of Award

Spring 1986

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1986 Carrie Bieber-Fromm


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