Master's Theses



Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


The present experiment was designed to assess the effects that two different relaxation techniques have on the handwriting quality of college students. The experimental design was a 3x4 (conditions x sessions) split-plot design. Twenty-four subjects were randomly selected and assigned to three groups (EMG biofeedback only, EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training, and control) of eight students each. The dependent variables were microvolts/second generated during each training session and handwriting samples taken prior to the first training session (pretest) and after the final training session (posttest). The microvolts/second generated by each subject were also analyzed by converting them to corresponding range corrected scores. The pretest and posttest handwriting samples were rated on a 5-point rating scale on each of five handwriting variables. An overall rating of the handwriting was also computed. It was hypothesized that EMG biofeedback and EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training would be more effective in enhancing handwriting quality than the control group. It was also hypothesized that the EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training procedure would be more effective than the EMG biofeedback procedure in enhancing handwriting quality. The results of the handwriting samples showed there was no significant difference between the groups on any of the handwriting variables. Results of the physiological data showed, when microvolts/second were analyzed, that there was no significant difference between the EMG biofeedback only group and both the EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training and control groups, with the latter two no differing from each other significantly. When the range corrected scores were analyzed, they showed a significant difference between both the EMG biofeedback only and EMG biofeedback assisted relaxation training groups and the control group, with the former two groups not being significantly different from each other.


Robert Markley

Date of Award

Spring 1981

Document Type

Thesis - campus only access


© 1981 Larry Michael Garrett


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