Master's Theses


Health and Human Performance

Degree Name

Master of Science (MS)


Lower body activities such as walking, running, and cycling have traditionally been used as the activity mode during physiological exercise testing. Interest in specific responses to upper extremity exercise has increased since upper body cycle ergometry became an important alternative exercise mode in the 1970s. Previous research on upper extremity exercise utilized upper body cycle ergometry or a standard push-pull rowing movement. Few upper extremity studies measured rate-pressure product. The purpose of this study was to compare rate-pressure product between lower extremity exercise utilizing upright cycling and primarily upper extremity exercise on a double arm swing Ski Erg ergometer. Hemodynamic response was measured using an automated motion tolerant exercise test monitor. The study utilized one dependent variable (rate-pressure product) and four independent variables (exercise mode, exercise intensity, age group, and gender). A repeated measures ANOVA was conducted to determine the effects of exercise mode, gender, and age group on rate-pressure product at identical exercise workloads. Significant differences in rate-pressure product were found for exercise mode, but not for gender or age group. Mean rate-pressure product increase for each workload was then compared using the Tukey LSD post hoc test. Rate-pressure product increase during each workload of upper extremity was significantly greater than during the corresponding lower extremity workload. This finding provides further evidence that greater hemodynamic demand during upper extremity exercise is a generalized response which occurs in response to isolated upper extremity exercise independent of the exact arm movement or specific muscle involvement. The findings also indicate greater hemodynamic response to upper extremity exercise is independent of gender or age group.


Dr. Greg Kandt

Date of Award

Summer 2012

Document Type



© 2012 Zanae Baird


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