Using spreadsheet-based simulation, the USGA Handicap Index was shown to be an unfair statistic in one-on-one and team competition in two common types of scoring: stroke and match play. Experiments were developed in which players of different abilities (based on central tendency and variation) competed against each other over many trials. The results showed that in some situations, based on identifiable differences in abilities, some players won/lost a disproportionate (unfair) number of times. The causes of unfairness are different in one-on-one and team play. Alternative procedures were proposed that proved to reduce the unfairness of the index.
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Tiger, Andrew; Ur-Rehman, Kashif; and Hurst, Chandra
"Using Spreadsheet-Based Simulation To Evaluate The Fairness of The USGA Golf Handicap Index,"
Journal of Business & Leadership: Research, Practice, and Teaching (2005-2012): Vol. 2:
1, Article 23.
Available at: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/jbl/vol2/iss1/23