Teacher-Scholar: The Journal of the State Comprehensive University


African-Americans have struggled to attain higher education since before Abraham Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation in 1863 (Allen & Jewell, 2002; Cokley, 2003). Booker T. Washington, John A. Schultz and George B. Tindall, to name a few, have detailed the risks and dangers that African-Americans took to educate themselves. Stories of slaves routinely beaten and whipped for attempting to read and write demonstrate the intrinsic motivation and commitment to education that African-Americans possessed (Lucas, 1994).