Participation in football has skyrocketed in the last two decades. With this influx of participation, there is increased research going into sports-related mild traumatic brain injuries (mTBI) or sports-related concussions. The use of aftermarket external padding for football helmets is examined concerning impact force accelerations and impact severity. In each study examined, there were no live patients but instead, the use of sensors and mannequin heads to fill different helmets. The use of inner helmet telemetry systems was used to obtain the data in both studies. In these studies, the data collected indicated a reduction in either force or impact severities. In higher velocities, there was a significant change in the Gadd Severity Index (GSI) with or without the Guardian-Cap and where the impact took place (Bowman, Breedlove, Breedlove, Lininger, & Nauman, 2017). With both studies showing significant findings with confidence intervals (CI) in the 95th percentile, there is a need for further evaluation of the topic and lager scale studies for a more powerful significance.
Walker, Joshua and Fitzhugh, David, "Reduction of Mild Traumatic Brain Injuries" (2020). 2020 SACAD Entrants. 90.