Educational achievement in middle grades serves as a strong indicator for student’s success in secondary and post secondary education. However, achievement in middle school education could be attributed to a complex and dynamic interaction among plethora of variables. For example, Harnischfeger and Wiley (1976) developed a model of school learning with six components in three categories: background which includes curriculum, institutional factors, and teachers and students characteristics, teaching learning process which includes homework, in-class and out-of-class activities, acquisition which is student achievement.
"Parents’ Education Level in Students’ Mathematics Achievement; Do School Factors Matter?,"
Academic Leadership: The Online Journal: Vol. 9
, Article 39.
Available at: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/alj/vol9/iss1/39