Academic Leadership: The Online Journal


Educational achievement in middle grades serves as a strong indicator for student’s success in secondary and post secondary education. However, achievement in middle school education could be attributed to a complex and dynamic interaction among plethora of variables. For example, Harnischfeger and Wiley (1976) developed a model of school learning with six components in three categories: background which includes curriculum, institutional factors, and teachers and students characteristics, teaching learning process which includes homework, in-class and out-of-class activities, acquisition which is student achievement.