Academic Leadership: The Online Journal


Since the early 1980s, the concept of quality has been a central focus of attention in the debate of higher education (HE). Over time, many developed countries have experienced a growing concern for quality in HE such as the United Kingdom, Australia, Norway, and the United States of America, amongst others (Anyamele 2004, Becket and Brookes 2005). The focus on quality leads many developed countries to acknowledge the benefits of the implementation of Total Quality Management (TQM) within their institutions (Kanji and Tambi, 1999). However, quality movement is rather slow in the HE of developing countries. Indeed, some HEIs have established systems of quality assurance and control but in different degrees of complexity and effectiveness (Anyamele, 2007).