Throughout American history, schools and educational leaders have been in the spotlight because of the eminent task of preparing the young of our nation for competition within a global economy and the marketplace of ideas. Educational leaders have moved through the stages of management, industrial efficiency, and cultural leadership finally concluding that school management requires more than efficiency and organization (Brickham, 1996). With the advent of tough-minded management and the realization of the difference between a leader and a manager, combined with an increase in the high school dropout rate, awareness developed that something was not working in American Schools (Batten, 1989). Changes in the organizational landscape of America gave rise to the idea of the principal as the cultural leader (Rollins and Roberts, 1998). This plan also, was doomed to demise. The beginning of accountability spurred the popularity of the idea of the principal as the instructional leader. This initiative was the basis for holding someone accountable when the school failed.
Perkins, Gerra; Wellman, Nelda; and Wellman, Wendell
"Educational Leadership: The Relationship Between Spirituality and Leadership Practices,"
Academic Leadership: The Online Journal: Vol. 7
, Article 14.
Available at: https://scholars.fhsu.edu/alj/vol7/iss1/14