In a group project environment, students often do not fulfill their obligations in hopes of benefiting from the work of others. This phenomenon is referred to as social loafing. Group performance researchers have consistently observed that individuals exert less effort when their efforts are pooled compared to when their efforts are considered individually. This study examines the role of motivation and its components (Expectancy, Instrumentality, and Valence), as modeled by Expectancy-Value theory, in controlling the phenomenon of Social Loafing in marketing group project situations. The study further examines the effects of student equity/inequity perceptions on the social loafing phenomena. Data from marketing research students were collected to examine hypotheses based on expectancy-value and equity theories. Results suggest that when instructors clearly and forcefully provide guidance that tend to reinforce expectancies, the social loafing behavior is likely to decline. Findings also suggest that creating and forcefully enforcing equitable rules and guidelines can reduce social loafing. In addition, instructors can assist in creating an environment where students perceive a higher degree of control on classroom activities, further reducing social loafing phenomenon.
"MOTIVATION AND INEQUITIES AS ANTECEDENTS OF SOCIAL LOAFING IN MARKETING GROUP PROJECTS,"
Journal of International & Interdisciplinary Business Research: Vol. 2
, Article 9.
Available at: http://scholars.fhsu.edu/jiibr/vol2/iss1/9