One of the essential elements of a sllccessflll organization is information technology, which has as its basis effective and efficient software development. In tllrn the fOllndation of software development is computer programming. The last decade of computer programming education has been dominated by the object-on'ented paradigm. While recent anecdotal accounts among complder science and computer information systems educators have often favored the objects-first approach to programming instruction (vis-a-vis the structures-first approach), very little empin'cal evidence has been offered. A field study by Johnson and Moses (2008) suggested that the objects-first approach is superior, but the expen'mental design was open to cn'ticism. This replication study significantly improves upon the expen'mental design yielding results that indicate neither the objects-first or the structures-first approach is preferred. While an inconclusive resllit may seem unimportant, it does provide needed guidance to educators to make pedagogical decisions based on other perhaps more important factors to help ensure the students' success. On the positive side, the study does suggest that learning object-on'ented programming is more difficlIlJ for novices than learning procedllral programming, which is also imponant for programming educators.





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