Academic Leadership Journal


The crisis of confidence in corporations has stimulated much debate among scholars and practitioners regarding leadership morality (Bartunek, 2002; Lefkowitz, Ilgen, Lee, Locke, Lowman & Schneider, 2003). Similarly, leadership scholars have acknowledged that leadership ethics rests upon the moral character of leaders and their choices of values (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999). They argued that, compared to others, some leaders possess values and characteristics that make them more resilient to social pressures to engage in unethical behaviors (Bass & Steidlmeier, 1999; O’Connor, Mumford, Clifton, & Connelly, 1995)



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