Academic Leadership Journal


Frank Gwavuya


Southern Africa has been witnessing an upsurge in the departure of technical expertise in virtually all sectors over the last five years (Stilwell, 2003). This has resulted in qualified personnel seeking greener pastures abroad. Movement of people from developing countries towards the developed world especially Europe and the Americas has been conspicuous. Anecdotes show that during the 1990s, total migration of professionals towards Western Europe and North America accounted for 30% of the flows registered throughout the world (ILO, 1996). It is estimated that in the year 2000 approximately 175million people, or 2.9% of the world’s population, were living outside their country of birth, compared to 100 million, or 1.8% of the total population, in 1995(Stilwell, 2003).