Academic Leadership Journal


The positive and negative effects of high-stakes testing are well-documented (Gratz, 2000; Heubert and Hauser, 1999). The development of an accountability system that is based on the results of students’ tests has intensified the pressure to perform for students and schools (Gratz). Many policy decisions and often the promotion of students are determined by these test results – hence the term “high-stakes testing” (Heubert and Hauser). Because of the high stakes involved, pressure for improving scores has an impact on teachers and their practices (Heubert and Hauser; Merrow, 2002).